Stroke is a common medical emergency that requires urgent recognition and treatment. The total number of strokes each year is estimated at 110,000 and the mortality from a first-ever stroke is 11%. Strokes can broadly be categorised as:

Orthostatic hypotension

In simple terms, orthostatic hypotension refers to a fall in blood pressure (BP) on standing. It is broadly defined as: Fall in systolic BP ≥ 20 mmHg or more (with or without symptoms) Fall in diastolic BP ≥ 10 mmHg with symptoms (clinically much less significant)


Master Williams is a 16-year-old boy with epilepsy documented by a neurologist, comes to you because he does not want to see his parent's family doctor. Take clinical history and perform a focused physical examination. Vitals: BP - 120/80, HR - 60/min, RR - 18/min, Temp - 38.5°C.


Mr. Harrison is a 66-year-old businessman who has come to the clinic because of a recent change in his walking pattern. He reports that he has been experiencing unsteadiness and difficulty maintaining balance while walking. Vitals: BP - 140/90, HR - 70/min, RR - 20/min, Temp - 38.5°C.